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Linux Basic Command on Backtrack 5 R3

Hello!! Friends Backtrack 5 R3 is one of the Linux operating system so we can operate Backtrack with Linux common command. Learning Linux operating system is very easy and you must familiar with the unix commands if you want use Backtrack 5 R3. Here I am post some common Linux commands which will be used on Backtrack 5.




                         
More Commands

ls

list: list. It shows the contents of the folder we indicate later. For example. If we want to show us what's in / etc:

# Ls / etc

If we do not interpret anything what we want to see is the contents of the folder where we are today:

# Ls

To display all files and folders, including hidden:

# Ls-a

To display the files and folders along with the rights you have, what occupies, etc:

# Ls-l

If we wanted to display the files in the same way as before, but also showing the hidden:

# Ls-la
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
CD

change directory: change directory. We can use it with absolute or relative paths. On the whole we indicate absolute path from the root (/). For example, wherever we are, if we write in console ...

# Cd / etc / apt ... we take that folder directly.
# Cd / ... send us to the root of the filesystem.

Relative paths are relative to something, and that something is the folder where we are now. For example if we are on / home and want to go to a temporary folder called within our personal folder.

# Cd tu_carpeta / temporal

We avoided the / home early because otherwise we introduce draws on the directory where you are.

# Cd

What this does is it takes you directly to your personal folder and wherever we are, is really very practical, very simple and that not everyone knows.
-------------------------------------------------- -------------- mkdir

make directory: make directory. Create a folder with the name that you indicate. We may use absolute and relative paths. We can tell you the whole path that precedes the directory we want to create, or if we are in the folder that will contain just enough to put the name:

# Mkdir / home / your_account / cucumber

If we are in / home / your_account ...

# Mkdir cucumber
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
rm

remove: delete. Clears the file or folder that you indicate. As before you can enter the full path and file name. This from now we will ignore, I think it has become clear with the two previous commands.

To delete a file: # rm filename

To delete an empty folder: # rm foldername

To delete a folder containing files and / or other folders:

# Rm-r foldername

Other options: "-f" does not ask for confirmation to delete or "-v" shows what clears.
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
cp

copy: copy. Copy the file indicated where you say. Here we can also play with routes for both the source file, as in the destination. You can also put the name you want to give the copy. For example, if we were in / etc/X11 and would like to make a backup of xorg.conf in our personal folder:

# Cp xorg.conf / home / tu_carpeta / xorg.conf.backup
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
mv

move: move. Same as above, only instead of making a copy, directly drives the file as you indicate, can be other than the original:

# Mv / etc / pepino.html / home / tu_carpeta / ese_pepino.html

Another very practical use that can be given is to rename a file. Simply indicate the new name in the second argument with the same path first. In this example we assume that we are in the folder that contains:

# Mv pepino.html ese_pepino.html
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
find

find: find. Find the file or folder that you specify:

# Find /-name cucumber

The above command would look everywhere folders and files called cucumber. If we were confident that is located at / var eg it indicaríamos:

# Find / var-name cucumber

If we're not sure of the name can indicate it with wildcards. Suppose we seek name contains "Pepi" in the same folder as before:

# Find / var-name * pepi *

You have other options. For example we can tell you find the files / folders over 1500 KB:

# Find /-size +1500

Or the files / folders containing the name "Pepi" and have less than 1000 KB:

# Find /-name *-size pepi * -1000
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
clear

clear: clear. Clears the screen / console.

# Clear
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
ps

Process Status: status of processes. It shows us what we want to know about the processes running on your system. Each process is identified by a number called PID. If we place ...

# Ps-A

... Will show a listing of all processes, their PID to the left and to the right name. If you want more information:

# Ps aux



-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
kill

kill: kill. Eliminates the process we indicate with PID:
# Kill

Sometimes the process does not "die" at all, but you can force the system to safely kill him as follows:

# Kill -9
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
sudo

super-user do: do as root. The user account in Ubuntu is relatively normal. Have administrator rights to half. I mean, it does, but every time you do something important and systemic risk, it must be done by the prefix "sudo" and then typing the password.

For example, something we have done many times in the tutorials is to make a backup of the xorg.conf file. It is located in the / etc/X11 and that any user can change or delete anything if you are not an administrator or have rights as such, thanks to sudo. So we always did:

# Sudo cp / etc/X11/xorg.conf / etc/X11/xorg.conf

Whenever we need to make a apt-get/aptitude update or install and actions of this kind, we have to put before the "sudo".
passwd

password: password. This command can change the password for our account. First we asked the current password as a security measure. Then prompts you to enter twice the new password.

# Passwd
his

super-user: root. By "their" we loguearnos as root. After writing it will ask for the root password and we as administrator.

# Su

This command also allows you to login with a different account. For example, imagine we have another account, besides root and ours, called "guest". To login as such would be sufficient to:

# His guest

and then enter the password for that account.

sudo passwd

Thanks to the combination of these two commands you can change the root password (the super-user).

# Sudo passwd
man

manual: manual.'s another powerful commands in linux. Program or command is normally comes with a complete help file on their use and their arguments. When desconozcáis how it is used and what arguments have a command or application you only have to type in console:

# Man named

Sometimes the information you provide us man can become excessive. Almost all commands and applications accept the argument "- help" to display more summarized some help. For example with aptitude:

# Aptitude - help




EXPLORING THE FILE SYSTEM

The file system is a collection of files and the directory hierarchy of your system. Among the main directories are:

/ Bin
/ Bin stands for binaries or executables. It is home to most of the essential system. Most (if not all) of the files in / bin with an asterisk (*) appended to their names. This indicates that they are executable files.

/ Dev
The files in / dev are known as device drivers (device drivers) and are used to access system devices and resources such as hard drives, modems, memory, etc..

/ Etc
/ Etc contains a number of system configuration files. These include / etc / passwd (the user database), / etc / rc (system initialization scripts, etc.).

/ Sbin
/ Sbin is used to store essential system that will use the same administrator
.
/ Home
/ Home contains the users' home directories. For example, / home / user is the user directory. On a newly installed system, there is no user in this directory.

/ Lib
/ Lib contains the shared library images. These files contain code that share many programs. Instead of each program containing its own copy of the shared routines, they are stored in a common place in / lib. This makes executable files smaller and saves space on disk.

/ Proc
proc is a "virtual file system". Files that are stored in memory contains, not on disk. They refer to various processes running on the system, and allow you to get information about which programs and processes are running at any given time.

/ Tmp
Many programs have a need to generate some information and store it in a temporary file. The location for these files is / tmp

/ Usr
/ Usr directory is very important. It contains a number of subdirectories in turn contain some of the most important and useful programs and configuration files used in the system.

The directories described above are essential for the system to be operational, but most of the things that are in / usr are optional for the system. Anyway, are those optional things that make the system useful and interesting.

/ Var
/ Var contains directories that often change their size and tend to grow.



COMMAND LIST

LINUX Commands
1 ac Print statistics about the time they have been connected users.
2 adduser See useradd.
3 alias Create shortcuts to commands, list current aliases.
4 apt-get Tool actualizacón / remote installation packages in debian based systems.
5 arp Lets get / manipulate the list of MAC / IP addresses that the system sees.
6 arping Sends ARP REQUEST to other computers on the network.
7 arptables Firewall functions similar to control iptables but arp protocol traffic.
8 at Work program, commands, scripts for later execution.
9 atq List scheduled jobs pending execution by the at command.
10 awk Analysis and processing patterns in files and listings.
11 basename Delete the path name of a file.
12 bc Calculator and mathematical language, very powerful.
13 biosdecode BIOS information.
14 blkid Displays attributes of block devices (disks, usb, etc..) Such as LABEL and UUID, among others.
15 bzcat Uncompress files using bzip2 compressed or packaged.
16 bzip2 Compressor / decompressor files.
17 bzmore View the archive contents or packaged using bzip2.
18 lime Displays a calendar.
19 cat Displays the contents of files and concatenates files.
20 CD Change directory.
21 cfdisk Disk partitioning tool, mainly used on Debian systems.
22 chage Change the information (expiration, revocation, etc.) of a user's password.
23 chattr Change extended attributes of files and directories
24 chfn Change the information used in finger.
25 chgrp Changes the group of a file (s) or folder (s).
26 chkconfig Controls / query how services are running or not on startup.
27 chmod Change the permissions of a file (s) or folder (s).
28 chown Changes the owner of a file (s) or folder (s).
29 chpasswd Upgrade passwords or passwords in batch mode. Passwords can update user groups.
30 chroot Execute commands in a restricted shell root to a directory and its subdirectories.
31 chsh Change your default shell or login shell.
32 cleanlinks Cleans symlinks unrelated and also removes empty directories.
33 clear Clean the terminal.
34 cmp Compares two files byte by byte.
35 convertquota Converts from old formats quota.group quota.user and new formats and aquota.group aquota.user.
36 cpio Copy, create, and extract compressed files in different formats and between teams or locally.
37 crontab Manage files and cron for root users.
38 curl Allows you to download or transfer url's.
39 cut Removes sections (columns mainly) of each line of a file or files.
40 date Displays / sets the date and time.
41 dc Interactive Calculator.
42 dd Convert and copy files and file systems.
43 ddate Displays the date in calendar format jarring.
44 df Displays space usage of hard drives or partitions.
45 diff Search and show differences between files.
46 dig Props for querying DNS servers.
47 dircolors Color setup for ls.
48 dirs Allows you to display, manipulate the list of directories used in the stack. (See popd and pushd)
49 dmesg Displays messages system startup (boot).
50 dmidecode List of computer hardware BIOS directly. (Also: lshw)
51 dos2unix Converts files from MS-DOS to Unix format / Linux.
52 du Displays space usage of files and directories.
53 dump Allows creation of backups for the file systems ext2 and ext3.
54 ECHO Prints a line of text, variables, or content to a file.
55 edquota Manages disk quota control user and group.
56 egrep It's like the 'grep-E', to use regular expressions.
57 eject Unmount and eject removable media such as CD-ROMs.
58 env Run a program in a modified environment.
59 ethtool Allows you to display or change values ​​of a network card.
60 exit Exits the current shell or terminal.
61 expect Create sequences and dialogues with other interactive sessions programmed commands or scripts.
62 export Exports the value of a variable.
63 exportfs Maintains a list of file systems NFS type which have been exported.
64 expr Mathematical expression evaluator.
65 factor Find the primes of a given number.
66 fc List, edit and reejecuta previously executed commands.
67 fdisk Disk partitioning tool, common to almost all distros.
68 fgrep It's like 'grep-F' to use regular expressions in file searches and listings.
69 file Determines the file type.
70 find File search, multiple search options.
71 findfs Find a filesystem by UUID or LABEL (label).
72 findsmb List information about computers that respond to SMB packets. List a Windows network. (Part Samba)
73 finger Displays information about the system users.
74 Fortune Prints a random adage.
75 fping Lets send ICMP packets (pings) to multiple computers on a network and determine if they are alive or not.
76 free Shows the used and free space of RAM and Swap.
77 fsck Tool to verify / repair file systems.
78 fuser Identify processes using files or connections (sockets).
79 gawk Analysis and processing patterns in files and listings. (Gnu version)
80 gcc C compiler and GNU C + +.
81 gedit GNOME text editor.
82 gpasswd Enables management of the file / etc / group
83 gpg Tool generation encryption and security certificates (opengpg).
84 grep Look for patterns of strings within files.
85 groupadd Create a new group in the system.
86 groupdel Deletes a group in the system.
87 groupmod Modifies a group on the system.
88 groups Prints the groups to which a user belongs.
89 gzip Compresses / expands files.
90 halt Turn off the computer.
91 hdparm Sets and displays features on the hard drives.
92 head Displays the first lines of a file.
93 help Help on bash internal commands.
94 history Displays the user's command history.
95 host Utility consulting DNS server host.
96 hostname Displays the computer name.
97 htpasswd Manage files of user / password for basic authentication of Apache.
98 hwclock Displays / Sets the date / time changes or hardware. (Date / Time System to date)
99 id Displays the UID (User ID) and GID (Group ID) of the user
100 ifconfig Displays / Configures the system's network interfaces.
101 ifstat Small utility that allows to observe statistics of network interfaces in real time.
102 init Initialization control ejecucción level.
103 insmod Modules inserted in the kernel.
104 ipcalc Perform simple calculations on IP addresses.
105 ipcount Identifying ranges of network, IP's calculation.
106 iptab Displays an IP address table prefix according to CIDR
107 iptables Firewall configuration tool for Linux.
108 iptraf Network traffic analyzer in text mode.
109 iwconfig Set up a wireless network card.
110 iwlist Gets details of a wireless card.
111 jobs Displays user jobs in suspension or background.
112 kate KDE Text Editor.
113 kill Terminates processes, more correctly sends signals to processes.
114 killall End processes with the same name or group.
115 last Displays information from past users logged.
116 lastb Displays information from the previous failed attempts to login.
117 less Displays the contents of an archive, searchable and movement back and forth.
118 ln Create links (shortcuts) soft and hard files and directories.
119 locale Specific information about the local environment variables.
120 locate Indexes and searches files. Slocate safer to use.
121 losetup Defines and controls devices such as 'loop'.
122 lpq Sample documents for printing in the print queue.
123 lpr Add a document to the print queue.
124 ls List files and directories.
125 lshw List of computer hardware BIOS directly. (Also: dmidecode)
126 lsmod Displays the status of the modules in the kernel.
127 lsof Displays open files in ejecucción program, or a user, process, etc.
128 lspci List PCI devices in the system.
129 lsusb List system usb devices.
130 mail Send and receive email.
131 man Command displays the manual indicated.
132 mc Handler archvivos with mouse support in text mode, not every distro I have.
133 mcedit Mc text editor.
134 md5sum Check (and creates) files with md5 signature certification.
135 mkdir Create directories.
136 mkfs Build a Linux file system.
137 mkpasswd Password generator. (Software Package 'expect').
138 modinfo Displays information about kernel modules.
139 modprobe Tool to add / remove kernel modules.
140 more Pager similar to but less funcioanal less as it comes forward and retocede.
141 mount Monta storage partitions enabled devices listed.
142 mtools Set of utilities to access DOS disks from Linux.
143 mv Moves files and directories.
144 netstat Network Utility showing connections, routing tables, interface statistics, etc..
145 nice Run a program with a priority other than normal ejecucción.
146 nohup Runs a program immune to hangups and without access to a terminal.
147 openssl Control, management, security certificate generation.
148 partprobe Tells the operating system to the changes mentioned in / etc / fstab
149 passwd Changes the specified user's password.
150 ping Send an ECHO_REQUEST (echo request) to a computer on the network.
151 pkill Send signals to processes based on their attributes.
152 popd Removes entries (directories used) from the list of directories used in the stack. (See dirs and pushd)
153 pr Format or convert text files for printing.
154 ps Displays system processes or user or both.
155 pstree Displays processes as a tree.
156 pushd Adds entries (directories used) in the directory list (stack or stack). (See dirs and popd)
157 pwck Check the integrity of the file / etc / passwd
158 pwconv Add shadow protection or sets the file / etc / passwd.
159 quota You can see the use of user fees.
160 quotacheck Create, verify, manage disk quota systems
161 quotaoff Deactivates disk quotas.
162 quotaon Active control disk quotas for users and groups.
163 rdesktop Open graphics terminals has? Ia Windows computers.
164 reboot Restart the computer.
165 renice Changes the priority of a process or program ejecucción.
166 repquota Report use of disk quotas.
167 resolveip Solve the ip or host domain indicated.
168 rev Reverses the lines of a file.
169 rm Deletes or removes files.
170 route Displays / changes the IP routing table.
171 rpm Program installation / update / removing packages, redhat based distros.
172 runlevel Displays the current run level and previous system.
173 scp Copy files between computers, part of the package openssh (encrypted communication protocol).
174 screen Virtual terminal manager.
175 thirst Editor online file filters and transforms.
176 service Run / stop services manually.
177 set Displays or sets the environment variables for the user actuual.
178 sha1sum Check (and creates) files sha1 signature certification.
179 shopt Enables or disables variables shell optional behavior.
180 shred Delete files securely and unrecoverable.
181 shutdown Turn off or restart your computer.
182 sort Sort lines of files and playlists
183 ss Props like netstat but basic socket set fast listings.
184 ssh Secure remote login program, openssh package program (encrypted communication protocol).
185 startx Log X.
186 his Change the current user indicated.
187 sudo Allows user runs indicate that root commands.
188 sync Forza memory blocks to disk, update the super block.
189 tac As cat shows and / or concatenated files in reverse.
190 tail Displays the end of a file.
191 tailf Synonym tail-f command, lets you see in real time the end of a file, ie as you type, useful for monitoring logs.
192 tar Tool packer / compressor files.
193 testparm Check samba smb.conf file for errors or corrections.
194 time Returns the time that you ran the command or program indicated.
195 top Displays system processes interactively and continuously.
196 touch Create empty files, change access dates and / or modification of files.
197 tput Change values ​​or terminal capabilities, based on terminfo.
198 traceroute Prints the route network packets to the destination.
199 tty Print the name of the terminal on which this.
200 tzselect Set an area or zone.
201 umask Set permissions mask when creating directories and files.
202 umount Unmount file systems.
203 unalias Removes alias command, created with the alias command.
204 uname Displays system information.
205 uniq Omits or reports on repeated lines in a file or listing.
206 units Converter units from one system to another, supports dozens of metrics.
207 up2date Upgrade Tool / remote installation package (used in redhat, centos).
208 uptime Shows how long has turned on the computer.
209 urpme Urpmi package program to uninstall or remove packages.
210 urpmi Upgrade Tool / remote installation packages, rpm based distros (used in mandriva).
211 useradd Add users.
212 userdel Removes users.
213 usermod Modifies user information.
214 users Displays the user names of all users currently connected to the system.
215 vi Display visual editor, text editor, you find in all Linux distros.
216 vim Same as vi but improved.
217 visudo Editor for the configuration file / etc / sudoers sudo.
218 vmstat Provides information on virtual memory.
219 w Shows who is connected to the system and you are doing.
220 wall Send a message to all terminals.
221 warnquota Configure / etc / warnquota.conf to complement messages for disk quotas.
222 wc Account words, lines, characters from a file or listing.
223 wget File Downloader from the Internet and not interactive.
224 whatis Short description, in a line of a command or program.
225 whereis Locate the binary, source and / or libraries, and documentation of a comado.
226 Which Shows the full path of a command.
227 who Shows who is connected to the system.
228 whoami Displays the current user.
229 xhost Access control for X sessions
230 xkill Mata or ends to an X client, ie a graphics program.
231 yes Prints a string repeatedly until terminated or killed the command.
232 yum Upgrade Tool / remote installation packages, rpm based distros (used in fedora, redhat and derivatives).
233 zcat Unzip / sample files compressed with gunzip (identical to gunzip-c)
234 zenity Displays various types of dialogues in X from a terminal.
235 zless Displays the contents of compressed files.
236 zmore Displays the contents of compressed files.

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